White MT, Chitnis CE
The unique biology of Plasmodium vivax, with its ability to form latent hypnozoites in the liver stage and the early appearance of gametocytes during blood stage infection, makes it difficult to target for elimination with standard malaria control tools. Here, we use modelling studies to demonstrate that vaccines that target different stages of P. vivax could greatly assist efforts to eliminate P. vivax. Combination of vaccines that target different P. vivax life cycle stages may be required to achieve high efficacy. Our simulations demonstrate that repeated rounds of mass vaccination with multi-stage vaccines can help achieve pre-elimination levels of P. vivax in both low and high transmission settings. We review the status of global efforts to develop vaccines for P. vivax malaria. We describe the status of the leading P. vivax vaccine candidates and share some thoughts on the prospects for availability of an effective vaccine for P. vivax malaria.